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UncategorizedDiabetes Mellitus-its type,cause, symptoms and complications 

Diabetes Mellitus-its type,cause, symptoms and complications 

Diabetes mellitus is  a type of diabetes which is  very commonly found  in South asia.Day by day the number of patients with diabetes mellitus is increasing and it’s alarming. 

Diabetes is not only irritating itself but also it welcomes many other diseases.Today we will know about the details of diabetes Mellitus. 

So how can we define diabetes mellitus or DM?

Diabetes Mellitus is a clinical condition characterized by increased blood glucose level or increased amount of glucose in blood.It can cause either due to insulin deficiency in the body or decreased sensitivity of tissues to insulin.

That means, when one’s blood glucose level is increased than normal level due to insulin deficiency or resistance, then there develops various clinical conditions in the body.This entire situation is called diabetes mellitus.

Types of diabetes mellitus :

There are mainly 2 types of diabetes mellitus –

1.Type -1 diabetes mellitus or insulin dependent diabetes mellitus 

2.Type -2 diabetes mellitus or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. 

Type- 1 diabetes mellitus occurs normally before the age of 20. On the other hand, type -2 diabetes mellitus occurs after 40 years of an individual.

Cause:

We intake carbohydrates , protein, fat as food.These are essential for our body and serves many purposes.After digestion in the alimentary tract, glucose is absorbed in the  blood.Then this glucose is supplied to tissues and cells all over the body to make energy. Insulin is a hormone that helps to enter glucose from blood inside the cell.

Pancreas, an important organ of our body that produces insulin hormone.

When our body faces insulin deficiency, then blood glucose can not enter the cell as the same amount of normal insulin containing body.Then level of blood glucose is increased than normal level and this causes many clinical symptoms and complications. 

Again, if the amount of insulin is normal but the sensitivity of tissue to insulin is decreased, then blood glucose level will also increase and cause diabetes mellitus. 

Genetics play an important role in diabetes mellitus. If you have a family history of diabetes mellitus, then you have the risk to suffer from type-2 diabetes mellitus. 

But in case of type-1 diabetes mellitus, family history doesn’t matter. 

Obesity is an important  risk factor for developing diabetes mellitus. To remain physically inactive, less physical activity can help to develop diabetes mellitus in individuals. 

There is another type of diabetes, that is gestational diabetes mellitus. Sometimes, pregnant women can suffer from diabetes mellitus, this type is called gestational diabetes mellitus. Keeping high cholesterol containing food in diet, hypertension can be the reason for diabetes mellitus.

Symptoms of diabetes mellitus :

1.Polyuria -frequent micturition. Patients go for peeing frequently.

2.Polydipsia-Increased thirst.Thirst increases in diabetes mellitus.  Patients want to drink water frequently.

3.Polyphagia-excessive hunger. Hunger of patients increases a lot.

4.Tachycardia- Heart rate will be increased than normal.

5.Weakness-Patients with diabetes mellitus feel weak. 

6.weight loss.If you have diabetes mellitus, you will lose weight day by day without any attempt. 

7.Dehydration- Due to excessive water excretion, patients will be dehydrated.

8.Hypotension.

9.Hypothermia -Body temperature can be decreased in patients with diabetes mellitus. 

10.confusion- patients can feel confusion, weakness. 

11.drowsiness – patients feel lethargy. 

12.hyperventilation

13.muscle wasting.

There can be a few other symptoms.

If you find any of these symptoms, consult a doctor as early as possible.

Complications of diabetes mellitus :

To be honest,diabetes is a dangerous disease.Its symptoms are too irritating. Patients with diabetes mellitus can’t enjoy their life properly.They have to suffer from many painful health conditions.

But the worst of diabetes mellitus is that it welcomes many other dangerous  diseases. These are much more harmful than diabetes.If patients with diabetes do not control diabetes or their blood glucose level,they are much more likely to have serious complications and a series of complications due to diabetes mellitus. 

Some complications are acute.It develops very quickly. They are-

  • Diabetes ketoacidosis
  • Hypoglycaemic coma
  • Nonketotic hyperosmolar diabetic comamicrovasDia sis 

There are chronic complications too.If patients with diabetes do not control their diabetes mellitus or blood glucose level for a long time, they may face different serious diseases. Such as-

1.renal failure.Due to uncontrolled diabetes mellitus for a long time, the patient’s kidney may fail to do its action properly.

2.Imparied vision :Diabetes Mellitus can cause blindness.Due to uncontrolled blood glucose level, many microvascular complications can occurs.Diabetic retinopathy is one of them. Besides, diabetes mellitus can cause cataracts and many other problems with vision.

3.sensory loss:due to uncontrolled diabetes mellitus for a long time, patients lose their sensation specially from distal part of the limbs.The most common cause for cutting of leg without accident is diabetes mellitus. 

4.Motor weakness

5.Atherosclerosis :atherosclerosis means making of plucks in the blood vessel.It can cause heart attack letters.

6.Stroke-due to obstruction of blood vessels inside the brain or surrounding the brain, patients can face stroke and consequences can come with death.

7.myocardial infarction:Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus for a long time, can cause myocardial infarction.

8.diabetic foot disease : Gangrene of the lower extremities.

See, how harmful diabetes mellitus is!

Diabetes mellitus is truly a serious disease.It has no permanent remedy yet.The patients can just control it and control of diabetes mellitus sometimes become not so easy in socio -economic perspectives.

So the best way to be saved from this dangerous disease is to prevent it. 

To prevent diabetes mellitus, obase person should lose their weight fast.If one have family history of diabetes mellitus (specially  in 1st degree relation),he or she should be more careful.Hypertension have to be controlled.One should avoid high level of cholesterol in diet and should eat less amount of fast food (fat containing food)

Unfortunately, if you have diabetes mellitus or if you get diabetes mellitus, you have to control it as much as you can.Otherwise  there will develop many serious diseases and your life will be threatened. 

Reference :

Guyton and hall(book)

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