Alfred Benhard Nobel was a very famous personality..He was a Swedish chemist, engineer,inventor and armourer.He was also a businessman. He invented dynamite.He was owner of the famous steel manufacturing company Bofors for a long time.He eventually turned it into one of the largest arms manufacturers.He had 350 different patents to his name, the most famous is inventing dynamite.Before his death, he bequeathed his vast estate to establish the Nobel Institute, which would award the Nobel Prize every year.He is mainly world famous for the Nobel Prize and the invention of dynamite.
Birth – He was born on 21 October 1833.
Birthplace – He was born in Stockholm, the capital of Sweden.
Family – His father’s name was Emmanuel Nobel and mother’s name was Andrieti.Alfred Nobel was unmarried forever.In 1833 his father Emmanuel became bankrupt.So in 1837, leaving the family in Stockholm, Alfred Nobel’s father Emanuel went first to Finland and then to St. Petersburg, Russia in search of his fortune.He built a mechanical workshop in St. Petersburg.Then in 1842 he moved to Petersburg with the whole family.Father Emmanuel died in 1872 and mother Andreatti in 1889.
Education – He was admitted to Jacob’s Apologetic School in Stockholm.He had only 18 months (1841-1842) of schooling.He then studied chemistry in America for four years.
Research and career – From 1850-1852, he went to France for a while and worked in the laboratory of T. Jules Pilouz.He also traveled to Germany, Italy and the United States.
Beginning of the Crimean War in 1853-1856.The Noble Company prospered early in the war, but when the Russian military lifted the order at the end of the war, the Noble Company went bankrupt.Alfred Nobel was desperate to produce new products.At that time his chemistry teacher Nikolai N. Jeanine reminded him of nitroglycerin.In 1862, Nobel began experimenting with nitroglycerin.In 1863, Nobel patented his first nitroglycerin-type product.In English it was called ‘blasting oil’. He then invented a device called the ‘blasting cap’ which would act as a trigger for the ‘blasting oil’.At that time he moved to Stockholm and continued his research there.In 1864, Nobel’s brother Emil was killed in an explosion during the preparation of nitroglycerin at Hellenberg in Stockholm.Nobel continued to experiment and founded a company called Nitroglycerin AB in Stockholm. In 1865, Nobel further improved his blasting cap design.He then moved from Sweden to Germany and established a factory called Alfred Nobel & Company in Krummel near the city of Hamburg.In 1866, Nobel founded the “United States Blasting Oil Company” in the United States. Krummel’s factory was destroyed in a terrible explosion.After that, Nobel tried to make nitroglycerin safer by floating a raft on the river Elbe.It was then that he realized that mixing nitroglycerin with kieselguhr (a silicon-like precipitate, also known as diatomaceous earth) stabilized it.He named this new mixed explosive dynamite.In 1867 he obtained a patent for dynamite.In 1871, Noble founded the “British Dynamite Company” in Ardeer, Scotland.In 1873, at the age of 40, Nobel became the owner of a large fortune. In 1877, the British Dynamite Company was renamed Noble’s Explosive Company.He went to Paris and settled on Avenue Malakoff.In the same year, production of nitroglycerine and dynamite began at the factory in Ardier.In 1875, Nobel invented “blasting gelatin” and patented it the following year.Founded the “Société générale pour la fabrication de la dynamite” in Paris, France. In 1876, Alfred Nobel & Company in Hamburg, Germany was renamed Dynamite Aktiengesellschaft (DAG).Noble began looking for a personal secretary and housekeeper. During this time he met Bertha Kinsey von Chinick und Tettau and chose her as his personal secretary. But after a few days, he left Nobel’s job and started a peace movement. This woman we know as Bertha von Suttner won the Nobel Peace Prize.In 1880 Nobel’s Italian and Swiss companies merged to form “Dynamite Nobel”.In 1881, Nobel bought a plot of land and a laboratory in Severn, outside Paris.In 1885, DAG and some other German dynamite companies joined together to form the “German Union”.In 1886, DAG and Nobel’s Explosive Company merged to form the “Nobel-Dynamite Trust Company” in London, UK. 1887 – Nobel received a patent in France for the invention of the explosive powder “ballistet”. In 1891, after a dispute with the French government over ballistics, Alfred Nobel left Paris and settled in San Remo, Italy. In 1893 Noble appointed Regner Solman, whom he later named executor of his will and testament. In 1894, Alfred Nobel purchased a small machine-works and a house in Karlskoga, Sweden. 1895 – Nobel’s third and last will was signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris.
Death – In late 1896, Nobel was told by doctors that his health was not good.But Nobel did not pay attention to those words.He went to San Remo and bought new horses.Also bought furniture for the new house.Alfred Nobel visited San Remo on November 21,1896.It seemed to him that he was now free from sorrow and anxiety.On December 7 he wrote a letter to Solman and it was then that he suffered a fatal stroke of paralysis. His servants led him upstairs to his bedroom.His ability to speak and remember was severely affected by the above injuries.He tried to say something in his native Swedish.His servant could understand only one word – telegram. He sent telegrams to Alfred’s nephew and Solman.Three days later, on the morning of the tenth, Alfred left this world. But neither Nephew nor Solman had reached San Remo by then. The thing that Alfred had feared all his life had happened, and he saw no one when he died.The Nobel family decided that he would be buried in Stockholm for the last time but with a brief ceremony before moving to San Remo. A Swedish priest was called from Paris for this. But how dear money was, and how dear it was to them, was proved by the fact that on one side Alfred’s pot lay, and on the other the nephews and Sollman were busy looking for valuable documents and official copies of wills. Alfred bequeathed three times. The searchers obtained a copy of the second will, which was annulled. But then a telegram arrived on December 15, sent by a bank, saying that Alfred’s last will was with them and that it had been opened. Soleman was also responsible for the implementation of that wish. Now the death certificate was obtained from the doctor and on December 17 Alfred Nobel’s body was placed in the coffin by the priest. After that, the body went to Stockholm by train. Emanuel decided that the body would be buried on December 30, 1896.
Information was collected from Wikipedia.